Participles (3)

1. Present Participle As an object complement
The present participle can be used as an object complement placed after the object.

I found a man standing outside in the rain.
They kept me waiting.

2. As a subject complement
The present participle can be used as a subject complement placed after verbs

The movie was thrilling.
The tea was invigorating.
The lemon seemed appetizing.

3. Participles used as adjective phrase
The present participle can be used as part of an adjective phrase generally put after the noun it qualifies.

The man standing by the window.
The woman I’m talking to.

4. Differences of meaning
A few participles change their meaninga according to their position. Compare:

a. An ill-mannered person – meaning a person who has a bad manner
A person who is ill. – meaning a person who is sick.
b. Sinkhole – meaning a hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
Hole in the sink – meaning hole in our sink caused by rust or improper use of it
c. Exchange student - a student from one country received into an institution in another country in exchange for one sent to an institution in the home country of the first
In exchange of something – a barter or trade
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